Course

1. Taxonomy –
(a) Principles and basis of classification.
(b) Binomial system of nomenclature.
(c) General survey of animal kingdom, classification upto order and interrelationship
of the various phyla.

2. Diversity of Life Forms: Structure and functions of the invertebrates from Protozoa to Echinodermata.
(a) Levels of structural organizations- Unicellular, colonial and multicellular
forms, Coelom, segmentation and metamerism.
(b) Locomotory organs and their mechanisms.
(c) Food, feeding and digestion.
(d) Respiration.
(e) Excretory and osmoregulatory organs.
(f) Primitive and advanced nervous systems.
(g) Reproduction: Asexual, sexual and parthenogenesis.
(h) Larval forms.

3. Structural organization of the following chordate types -
(a) Protochordates, Balanoglossus, Herdamania, Branchiostoma.
(b) Chordates- Structure, classification and organization of vertebrates.
(c) Comparative anatomy of the integument, skeletal, digestive, respiratory,
circulatory, urinogenital & nervous systems of vertebrates.
(d) Adaptation in vertebrates; Adaptations in fishes, amphibians, reptiles,
birds and mammals.
(e) Economic importance of non-chordates and chordates.

4. Developmental Biology:
(a) Gametogenesis.
(b) Fertilization.
(c) Types of eggs cleavage and gastrulation, fate maps, metamorphosis in frog.
(d) Formation and fate of extra embryonic membranes in chick.
(e) Function and types of placenta in mammals.
(f) Sex differentiation in humans.
(g) Basic idea of regeneration, organogenesis and organisers.
(h) Cell differentiation and teratogenesis.

5. Evolution:
(a) Origin of life; history of evolutionary thoughts.
(b) Lamarkism and Darwinism. Sources and nature of variations. Natural
selection. Hardy-Weinberg law, cryptic and warning colouration, mimicry, isolation.
(c) Concept of species and sub-species.
(d) Fossils, outline of geological eras. Origin and evolution of man.
(e) Principles and theories of continental distribution of animals.
(f) Zoogeographical realms of the world.

6. Animal Ecology:
(a) Population, interspecific and interaspecific relationships, competition,
predation, parasitism, commensalism, co-operation and mutualism.
(b) Community ecology and succession, concept of ecosystem.
(c) Biogeochemical cycles. Limiting factors. Concepts of habitat and
ecological niche.
(d) Major biomes and their communities.
(e) Pollution - its control and management. Bioremediation.

7. Brain, Behavior and Evolution:
(a) Approaches and methods in study of behaviour.
(b) Proximate and ultimate causation, altruism and evolution-Group selection, kin selection, reciprocal altruism.
(c) Neural basis of learning, memory, cognition, sleep and arousal.
(d) Biological clocks, Development of behaviour, Social communication; Social dominance; Use of space and territoriality. Aggressive behaviour.
(e) Parental investment and Reproductive success; Parental care, Mating
systems.
(f) Habitat selection and optimality in foraging; Migration, orientation and
navigation; Domestication and behavioral changes.

8. Wild life studies:
(a) Different types of biodiversity, conservation and major wild life sanctuaries in Rajasthan.
(b) Endangered species and wild life of Rajasthan.

PAPER-II

1. Cell and Molecular Biology:

(a) Microscopic techniques: Florescence, Phase contrast, Confocal, Electron and Atomic force microscopes.

(b) Tissue preparation for different microscopes- Histochemical and immunochemical techniques- Histochemical staining of Nucleic acids and Enzymes. Antibody generation, ELISA, RIA, Blotting techniques, Immunocytochemical techniques, FISH, GISH.

(c) Radiolabelling Techniques; Types and properties of Radio isotopes, Tracer techniques, Autoradiography and safety guidelines.

(d) Electrophoresis, Centrifugation, Chromatography, Colorimetry Spectrophotometry.

(e) Structure and function of cell and cytoplamic constituents: Structure of nucleus, plasma membrane, mitochondria, Golgi bodies, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes and ribosomes. Cell cycle and cell division.

 

2. Gene structure and function:

(a) Structure and types of nucleic acids.

(b) DNA replication, repair and recombination (Unit of replication, enzymes involved, replication origin and replication fork, fidelity of replication, extrachromosomal replicons, DNA damage and repair mechanisms, homologous and site-specific recombination).

(c) RNA synthesis and processing (transcription factors and machinery, formation of initiation complex, transcription activator and repressor, RNA polymerases, capping, elongation, and termination, RNA processing, RNA editing, splicing, and polyadenylation, structure and function of different types of RNA, RNA transport).

(d) Protein synthesis and processing (Ribosome, formation of initiation complex, initiation factors and their regulation, elongation and elongation factors, termination, genetic code, aminoacylation of tRNA, tRNA-identity, aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, and translational proofreading, translational inhibitors, Postranslational modification of proteins).

(e) Control of gene expression at transcription and translation level (regulating the expression of phages, viruses, prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes, role of chromatin in gene expression and gene silencing).

 

3 Cell to Cell Communication and Cell signaling:

(a) Host parasite interaction Recognition and entry processes of different

pathogens like bacteria, viruses into animal and plant host cells, alteration of host cell behavior by pathogens, virus-induced cell transformation, pathogen-induced diseases in animals and plants, cell-cell fusion in both normal and abnormal cells.

(b) Cell signaling Hormones and their receptors, cell surface receptor, signaling through G-protein coupled receptors, signal transduction pathways, second messengers, regulation of signaling pathways, bacterial and plant two-component systems, light signaling in plants,

bacterial chemotaxis and quorum sensing.

(c) Cellular communication Regulation of hematopoiesis, general principles of cell communication, cell adhesion and roles of different adhesion molecules, gap junctions, extracellular matrix, integrins, neurotransmission and its regulation.

(d) Cancer: Genetic rearrangements in progenitor cells, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, cancer and the cell cycle, virus-induced cancer, metastasis, interaction of cancer cells with normal cells, apoptosis, therapeutic interventions of uncontrolled cell growth.

4 Genetics:

(a) Mendelian laws of inheritance, recombination, linkage, linkage maps and crossing over. Multiple alleles.

(b) Mutation – Natural and induced mutations. Chromosome number and forms, structural rearrangements; Polyploidy.

(c) Cytoplasmic inheritance.

(d) Elements of human genetics – normal and abnormal karyotypes, genes and diseases, eugenics.

(e) Sex chromosomes and sex determination.

5 Biotechnology-

(a) Isolation and purification of RNA , DNA (genomic and plasmid) and proteins. Different separation methods.

(b) Analysis of RNA, DNA and proteins by one and two dimensional gel electrophoresis, Isoelectric focusing gels.

(c) Molecular cloning of DNA & RNA fragments in bacterial and eukaryotic systems.

(d) Expression of recombinant proteins using bacterial, animal and plant vectors.

(e) Isolation of specific nucleic acid sequences, Generation of genomic and cDNA libraries.

(f) Plasmid, phage, cosmid, BAC and YAC vectors.

(g) In vitro mutagenesis and deletion techniques, gene knock out in bacterial and eukaryotic organisms.

(h) Protein sequencing methods, detection of post translation modification of proteins. DNA sequencing methods, strategies for genome sequencing.

(i) Methods for analysis of gene expression at RNA and protein level, large scale expression, such as micro array based techniques.

(j) Isolation, separation and analysis of carbohydrate and lipid molecules.

(k) RFLP, RAPD and AFLP techniques.

6 Human Physiology:

(a) Chemistry of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Enzymes

and hormones. Biological oxidation. Metabolism of carbohydrates, protein and lipids.

(b) Cell Physiology- Structure, types and mechanism of muscle contraction.

Structure of neuron and transmission of axonic and synaptic nerve impulse.

(c) Functions of sensory organs concerned with vision, sound perception, taste, smell and touch.

(d) Physiology of Gastrointestinal tract: Contractility, Secretion of digestive juices, GI hormones. Mechanism of digestion and absorption.

(e) Physiology of Respiration: Pulmonary ventilation and gaseous exchange.

(f) Structure and Circulation of Blood: Blood structure and functions, blood

groups, clotting of blood, elementary idea of immunology. Structure and functions of the heart, Cardiac Cycle, Heart Beat, and its chemical regulation.

(g) Physiology of Excretion: Kidney structure, urine formation, counter current mechanism, regulation of electrolyte and water balance of the body.

(h) Endocrine Physiology: Structure, functions of Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Islets of langerhans and pineal gland.

(i) Physiology of Reproduction: Structure and hormones of Ovary & Testis. Hormonal control of gametogenesis and menstrual cycle.

(j) Placentation, Gestation and Partuirition.

7 Statistical application in Biology

(a) Mean, median, mode, students "t" test, chi-square test, standard deviation.

(b) Correlation and regression, variance and analysis of variance.

(c) Computer applications in biology – fundamentals of computers, history and generations.